The Durham Makerspace

I’ve written about meetup groups in the blog space before and I continue to enjoy them as a social and educational outlet. Yesterday, I attended my first East-End Tech Meetup. I must say that having a group closer to home is a lot nicer than a 3 hour round trip into downtown Toronto. The real excitement, for me however, was the topic. Here it is from the meetup description:

A remarkable young member of our community is planning to launch a GTA-class Makerspace right here in Oshawa. He wants to present his ideas to our community, elicit feedback, generate more ideas & strategies, as well as gather the much needed support from our citizens here in the Durham Region. This is no small undertaking and it will take the effort of many to back his execution.

This would be a substantial asset to Oshawa and its people so spread the word. Tell your friends & neighbors. Every bit of support is needed to make (pun) this a reality.

Now, I’ve visited maker labs before. They were all far away, very expensive, and difficult to join, especially for an older person such as myself. Let’s just say that I did not feel welcome.

This group is different. I suppose it is at least partly the thrill of getting in on the ground floor, but there was an energy present that I had not seen or felt before. There was also an open exchange of ideas and many diverse contributions were being sought after. My impressions were very positive.

The effort is still in its infancy, but they have a facebook page. Take a look and hopefully find a resource to express your creativity through engineering and making.

Yours Truly

Peter Camilleri (aka Squidly Jones)

The Clone’s Family Tree [Updated]

In Ruby, most data is accessed by reference. That is, variables contain a sort of hidden pointer to the data, not the data itself. This is very efficient but has a hidden trap. Assignment does not copy the data. It only copies the reference! Consider the following snippet of code:

a = 'foo'
b = a
a << 'bar'
puts b

What do you think the “puts b” statement will print? Turns out it’s “foobar”. Since only references were copied, when the original variable (a) was modified in the third line, both variables (a and b) were “mutated”.

So how does one copy values and not just references? The Ruby programming language has two methods for duplicating data. These are “dup” and “clone”. While these methods are quite useful, they both suffer from two shortcomings:

  1. In Ruby, if an attempt is made to clone (or dup) an immutable data item like a number, an error occurs. The justification for this uncharacteristic strictness is not at all clear, but it does mean that the clone (or dup) operation must be applied with great care.
  2. The copying process used by both clone and dup is said to be a shallow (or incomplete) copy. While the target data structure is copied, any internal data structures are not. References to those data remain aliased in the copy.

I started off to create a gem to resolve these issues. I ended up creating a family of  four gems that are tailored to the exacting data copying requirements of the application. Here is a summary of those gems:

Family Chart
Depth / Action Need to copy all data and metadata attributes? Need to copy data only?
Only need a shallow copy? Use the safe_clone gem. <Source> Use the safe_dup gem. <Source>
Need a full, recursive copy? Use the full_clone gem. <Source> Use the full_dup gem. <Source>


  • Since none of these gems override the default clone and dup methods, the default behaviors remain available. Further, if multiple, differing requirements exists, more than one family member gem may be employed in the same project without fear of conflict.
  • If multiple family gems are employed, they will each need to be installed and required into the application. See each gem’s github source for details.
  • Meta-data attributes include the frozen status and singleton methods. However the tainted status is always copied.

I hope you find these little gems as useful as I have found them to be. I you like them, give the code repository a star as a sign of approval!

Yours Truly

Peter Camilleri (aka Squidly Jones)

Hidden Traps: String Mutations

In the world of Sci-Fi movies and video games, mutants are not always a bad thing. In fact, sometimes, the mutants are the hero or the key to the hero’s success. On the other hand, no matter how good their intentions, trouble always seems to follow them.

In the world of programming, data can be mutated as well and it attracts trouble there too. Data is mutated when its internal state is modified. The alternative is data that is immutable. This means that the internal value cannot be modified, it can only be replaced with a new value.

Let’s see an example of immutable data in action first:

a+= 4
puts a   #Displays 46
puts b   #Displays 42

This is the safe, sane case. Changes to the variable a do not affect the variable b. Now, in Ruby, strings are mutable. Let’s see how this plays out.

a << ” world”
puts a    #Displays: hello world
puts b    #Also displays: hello world

In this case, the string data in a and b was mutated. The change to a was expected. The change to the seemingly unrelated variable b could be a nasty surprise and a source of bugs. I can say that this very issue is without doubt the number one source of trouble in my own code.

The sensible question to ask is: Why are string mutated at all? Why not always protect the programmer from this issue? The answer is performance. Creating new instance of strings all the time is wasteful of resources and places a heavy load on the memory management system. Let’s see how this issue is handled by two leading languages: C# and Ruby.


In C#, the mutation of strings issue is handled by giving the programmer choice. The default, goto class for strings, namely the String class, is fully safe and immutable. Thus for simple programming tasks and less experienced programmers, the obvious choice also is the easiest to get right. Maybe not super-fast, but the expected results.

When (and where) performance issues do arise, the StringBuffer class exists that can be more efficient because is allows data mutation. In fact, it embraces it with special mutating methods, not part of the String class. Since a conscious choice must be made to allow and use mutation, hopefully, the programmer will focus there attention on those areas, thus avoiding nasty surprises.


In contrast, Ruby (currently) allows string mutation by default. This means that any string at any time could be mutated. This causes a lot of problems. There are some possible answers:

  • When assigning a string, clone it. A statement like: a = b.clone breaks the connection between a and b by making a full copy of the string. It works, but this can be slow.
  • When creating a string, freeze it. This looks like: b = “Hello”.freeze and now any mutation will raise an error that reveals the bug at the point it first occurs. This is not slow, but requires thorough testing to avoid exceptions in the field. You also need to remember to use the freeze in the first place.
  • In upcoming versions of Ruby (version 3 I believe), strings will be frozen by default. You will now need special syntax to create mutable strings. This will look (probably) something like b =“Hello”). This suffers from the fact that it is likely to break a lot of older code.

These two languages show two divergent approaches to the issue of string mutation. Now I really like Ruby, and C# is a pretty decent language too. On this issue though, C# looks like the clear winner here. Safe by default, gentle on programmers, efficient where needed, and above all, not breaking older code. To me it’s a slam-dunk!

What are your thoughts? Does another language do an even better job? I’d love to hear from you, so chime in with a comment, idea, or objection!

Yours Truly

Peter Camilleri (aka Squidly Jones)

Article Update: April 15, 2016

I am pleased to announce the release of the fOOrth 0.6.0 language system. The major change in this version is to split the String class into an immutable String class and a mutable StringBuffer class. Even though fOOrth is based on Ruby, the underlying architecture is more than flexible enough to accommodate this change.